3 edition of Inference in Indian and Western logic found in the catalog.
Inference in Indian and Western logic
Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya
Includes bibliographical references and index.
|Statement||by Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya.|
|LC Classifications||BC199.I47 B42|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||56 p. ;|
|Number of Pages||56|
|LC Control Number||79904794|
Knowledge obtained through each of these can, of course, still be either valid or invalid. However, such a reinterpretation raises some issues. To show that this form is invalid, we demonstrate how it can lead from true premises to a false conclusion. The belief, that metaphysical e. Here the middle term is contradicted by some other pramana and not by inference.
False John Lennon was tall. It is based on the nature of vyapti and on the different methods of establishing it. Barnhart The Character of Logic in India. Presenting a truth table that validates semantic inference counts as "proof". First, there is the well-known issue of the whole not being the sum of its parts. Acharya Mahapragya is known for his enlightening discourses.
There is Double Agreement between the terms— they agree in presence in the positive instances and they also agree in absence in the negative instances; e. The Eminent Scholar of PhilosophyDr. The Soviets are working on their own nuclear or high-value secret weapons program. New York: Routledge, There are also certain fundamental differences between the two views and the view of Nyaya is accepted as better by the modern western logicians also. The behaviour of physical systems at the atomic level is described by quantum mechanics, which tells us that there may exist entangled states that cannot be disentangled without fundamentally altering the system.
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It is more reasonable to explain the similarities between the two as due to a parallel development of thought. The terms agree only in absence, there being no positive instance of their agreement in presence, e.
The behaviour of physical systems at the atomic level is described by quantum mechanics, which tells us that there may exist entangled states that cannot be disentangled without fundamentally altering the system. Additionally, however, while it was popular as a topic for philosophical analysis some years ago, logic has descended in importance and now appeals to an ever narrower range of philosophers.
According to the Nyaya school, there are exactly four sources of knowledge pramanas : perception, inference, comparison and testimony.
Theologically unacceptable parts were attributed to various others, like Plotinus. Plato and Proclus had thought that logical and mathematical truths were necessary truths in the sense that they were eternally true or true for all time. A red-hot iron ball or clear fire does not smoke.
Inference: The small city in Siberia is not a small city anymore. The epistemological thrust of Indian logic, as Matilal tells it, also explains some of its more unique and often puzzling features. Given the essential relationship between logical themes and philosophical themes such as epistemology and metaphysics, a broader history of Indian philosophy is useful to understand the history of Indian logic.
The conclusion may be correct or incorrect, or correct to within a certain degree of accuracy, or correct in certain situations. It is a psychological process. But we can observe some of its properties, assign it to a category, and from the category predict properties that we have not observed.
False John Lennon was tall. Therefore Socrates is mortal nigamana. Aquinas and the Schoolmen, however, undertook to make this knowledge theologically correct. A History of Indian Philosophy. The process of reaching such a conclusion.
The example is a special feature of the Nyaya syllogism and illustrates the truth that the universal major premise is the result of a real induction based on the law of causation and that induction and deduction cannot be really separated.
It violates the rule that the middle term should be present in the sapaksa sapaksasattva ; e. For example, if we know that snow is white, we are free to apply a standard rule of deductive inference to conclude that either 'snow is white or lions wear argyle socks.
This is psychologizing in the "bad" or, I suppose, nonlogical sense. Therefore, all beef comes from animals. When inference is based not on causation but on uniformity of co-existence, it is called samanyatodrsta, e. When these are violated, we have fallacies. On the structured-time interpretation of quantum mechanics, these entangled states are interpreted to arise because time really has a microphysical structure in the sense explained above, in the context of Buddhist and Jain logic so that the logic of the microphysical world is quasi truth-functional.
Whether such transmission involved the syllogism is another matter. According to Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti: In the third part we have shown how the study of the so-called 'restrictive conditions for universals' in Navya-Nyaya logic anticipated some of the developments of modern set theory.
Jha, Satguru Publications, New Delhi, Inference definition: An inference is a conclusion that you draw about something by using information that you | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples logic. the specific mode of reasoning used See also deduction (sense 4), The book includes a collection of stories.
History of Indian Logic. Vidyabhusana suggests a classification of Indian logic into ancient, medieval, and modern periods. Each of the many Indian philosophical schools had their own unique take on the analysis of inference, and thus there is an extensive amount of interschool debates about logic and the terms that arise in them.
Inference, in logic, derivation of conclusions from given information or premises by any acceptable form of reasoning. Inferences are commonly drawn (1) by deduction, which, by analyzing valid argument forms, draws out the conclusions implicit in their premises, (2) by induction, which argues from.
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Non-Western Logic * C. K. Raju It is believed in the West that logic began with Aristotle, and that logic is universal. The core of Western thought—including present-day formal mathematics and the philosophy of science—is premised on the belief that logical truths are universal, that they are necessary truths, and that logical deduction is certain and infallible.
The use of argument in rational inquiry in India reaches almost as far back in time as its oldest extant literature. Even in very early texts, one finds the deliberate use of modus tollens, for example, to refute positions thought to be hildebrandsguld.com light of such practice, it is not surprising to discover that Indian thinkers came to identify certain forms of reasoning and to study them.